Abraham Lincoln, the Election of 1860, and Secession (1858-1861)
Sections:
  1. "A House Divided"
  2. 1860 Election Banners
  3. 1860 Election Results
  4. South Carolina's Causes for Secession from the Union
  5. Constitution of the Confederate States of America
  6. Confederate President - Jefferson Davis
  7. Crittenden Compromise
  8. A Cure for Republican Lock-Jaw
  9. Lincoln's Farewell Address
  10. Abraham Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
  11. Lincoln's July 4 Message to Congress
  12. PowerPoint of 1860 election
  13. Historiography
"A House Divided"Top
Attached Documents
In this speech Abraham Lincoln addresses how the election of President Buchanan, the Nebraska Bill and, the Dred Scott decision will affect the unity of the Nation.

The picture below, of Dred Scott, is one of many used to advertise the case.

Questions to Consider
1. According to Lincoln, how will these things affect the unity of the Nation?
2. What must be done in order to prevent a divided Nation?
     Lincoln A House Divided.rtf  
     dred-scott-graphic.jpg
Citations:
Lincoln's speech was found at http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/diglibrary/prezspeeches/lincoln/al_1858_0616.html
The image from the Dred Scott Case was found at http://digital.wustl.edu/images/dred-scott-graphic.jpg
1860 Election BannersTop
Attached Documents
The banners below were used in the 1860 Presidential Election. Much like today it was important to use visual aids during a campaign. The first banner represents Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin. The second banner represents the candidates for the Constitutional Union Party, Bell and Everet.
     Lincoln and Hamlin Campaign Poster.jpg
     Grand National Union Banner for 1860 The Candidates and Their Platform.jpg
Citations:
The Lincoln banner was found at http://loc.harpweek.com/LCPoliticalCartoons/Disk3/5w/3a07412v5w.jpg
The Bell banner was found at http://loc.harpweek.com/LCPoliticalCartoons/Disk7/5w/3b50365v5w.jpg
1860 Election ResultsTop
Historical Context
A turning point in early American history, the eleciton of 1860 was a sign of things to come. There was a growing gap between political factions that was defined by the outcome of this election. The national split was became more evident and it was clear that a Civil War was on the horizion.

Attached Documents
This map details the percent of popular vote by state.

     Election of 1860 Map 1.JPG
Citations:
The map was found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/elections/maps/1860.gif
South Carolina's Causes for Secession from the UnionTop
Historical Context
The election of 1860 has left many on edge in the South, particularly South Carolina. The fear that a Republican President would take actions to limit states' rights has led them to take drastic action.

Attached Documents
In this declaration, South Carolina outlines there reasons for secession from the Union.

The picture below represents the men who made up South Carolina's seceding delegation.

Questions to Consider
1. What three specific reasons does South Carolina give for secession?
2. How do they Constitutionally justify these reasons?

     Causes Which Induce the Secession of South Carolina.rtf  
     South Carolinas Seceding Delegation.jpg
Citations:
South Carolina's Reasons for Secession were found at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/csa/scarsec.htm
The picture of the delegates was found at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/south_secede/sc_delegation_sm.jpg
Constitution of the Confederate States of AmericaTop
Attached Documents
When the framers of the Confederate Constitution set out to draft the document they were set on forming a document that was fundamentally different form the one they opposed. The framers wanted a document that not only represented their ideological differences, but their governing differences as well. Ironically, in the end, the only difference that can be found between the two documents is in the ideology. The government that was set up by the Confederate Constitution is practically identical to that of the United States.

Questions to Consider
1. How did the similarites in the two documents lead to the demise of the Confederacy?
2. If the governemtnes of the Union and Confederacy had been different, do you think the outcome of the war would have been different?

     Constitution of the Confederate States of America.rtf  
Citations:
The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was found at http://www.libs.uga.edu/hargrett/selections/confed/trans.html
Confederate President - Jefferson DavisTop
Attached Documents
Jefferson Davis served as the provisional president of the Confederacy until elections could be held. On February 18, 1861 he delivered his inaugural address. In this adress, the causes for southern secession and the differences between their government and that of the Union are explained.

Questions to Consider
1. How will Davis handle the duties as provisional president?
2. How ascertain that the Confederacy will be different from the Union?

     Jefferson Davis Inaugural Address.rtf  
Citations:
Jefferson Davis' Inaugural Address http://jeffersondavis.rice.edu/resources.cfm?doc_id=1508
Crittenden CompromiseTop
Historical Context
On March 4, 1861, a Peace Convention was held in Washington. This convention was called to order by the state of Virginia. Virginia, on the verge of secession, was looking for a way they could compromise with the federal government before making the final decision.

Attached Documents
The outcome of the Peace Convention was the Crittenden Compromise. This compromise proposed six amendments to the Constitution and four resolutions. The amendments and resolutions were centered around slavery, slave trade, and fugitive slave laws.

Questions to Consider
1. What do you think were the underlying goals for the delegates at this convention?
2. What do you think were the underlying goals of the compromise?
3. How could things have been different if the compromise had been accepted by the Union?

     Crittenden Compromise.rtf  
Citations:
Crittenden Compromise http://www.tulane.edu/%7Elatner/CrittendenComp.html
A Cure for Republican Lock-JawTop
Attached Documents
This cartoon depicts congressional efforts to pass the Crittenden Compromise.

Questions to Consider
1. One of the main goals of the compromise was to prevent a Civil War. Although the compromise was not accepted, if it was do you think it would have prevented a Civil War?
2. In your opinion, what alterations in the compromise would have made it more likely to pass?

     A Cure for Republican Lockjaw.jpg
Citations:
A Cure for Republican Lock-jaw http://loc.harpweek.com/LCPoliticalCartoons/DisplayCartoonMedium.asp?MaxID=41&UniqueID=2&Year=1861&YearMark=1861
Lincoln's Farewell AddressTop
Historical Context
On his trip to the Washington for his inauguration, Lincoln made a number of stops to reassure Americans that he persists in his efforts to avoid a civil war.

Attached Documents
This address is an example of how deeply committed Lincoln was to his causes and his friends.

Questions to Consider
1. Using this document as a testament, how do you think Abraham Lincoln’s deep commitments to his causes enabled him to succeed as a president?

     Abraham Lincoln Farewell Address.rtf  
Citations:
Lincoln's Farewell Address http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0618/2004050766-s.html
Abraham Lincoln's First Inaugural AddressTop
Attached Documents
In his first Inaugural Address, Abraham Lincoln, addresses the issue of South Carolina seceding from the Union. In doing so, he also outlines how he will handle the situation as President of the United States.

The picture below is of the crowd gathered to see Abraham Lincoln delivering his first inaugural address.

Questions to Consider
1. How does Abraham Lincoln address the issue of slavery?
2. How does Abraham Lincoln address South Carolina’s fears of the Republican government?

     Abraham Lincoln First Inaugural Address.rtf  
     Lincolns First Inaugural Address.jpg
Citations:
Lincoln's Inaugural Address http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/lincoln1.htm
Photograph of the crowd for Lincoln's Address http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/vctt8photo.jpg
Lincoln's July 4 Message to CongressTop
Attached Documents
On July 4, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln addressed a special session of Congress. In this address, he announced that a war has been declared on the states that seceded from the Union. He also calls on Congress to make available the funds and man power needed for a short war.

Questions to Consider
1. What reasons does Lincoln give for declaring war?
2. What resources will be needed for the war?
3. What states have agreed to the cause of the war?

     Lincoln July 4 Message to Congress.rtf  
Citations:
Lincoln's July 4th Message to Congress http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/diglibrary/prezspeeches/lincoln/al_1861_0704.html
PowerPoint of 1860 electionTop
     1860election.ppt  
HistoriographyTop
The following book addresses Abraham Lincoln as president and the intellectual conflicts at the onset of the American Civil War; the author employs a theoretical framework to approach the causes of the war.

Jaffa, Harry V. A New Birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

This next book approaches the causes for secession, placing particular emphasis on prohibitive tariffs as the primary grounds for the American Civil War.

Adams, Charles. When in the Course of Human Events: Arguing the Case for Southern Secession. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

The following book is a collection of essays that explore the problems of slavery and slave resistance, the origin of the task system in South Carolina, and the economics of John C. Calhoun among many other selections.

Paquette, Robert L. and Lou Ferleger. Slavery, Secession, and Southern History. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000.

The following article approaches the secession through discussing the Confederate Constitution, by analyzing the Constitution the goals of the Confederate states become more clear.

Currie, David P. "Through the Looking-Glass: The Confederate Constitution in Congress, 1961-1865." Virginia Law Review. 90(5): 1257-1399.

This brief article discusses the Gettysburg Address and the significant role it continues to play in race relations and perceptions in America.

Katula, Richard A. "The Gettysburg Address as the Centerpiece of American Racial Discourse." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. 28: 110-1.

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